Shipping Guide

 

Alpha Bravo Charlie phonetic alphabet

Alpha-Bravo-Charlie phonetic alphabet is frequently used international alphabet for spelling the complex words and names over the phone.

Introduction

The Incoterms rules or International Commercial terms are a series of pre-defined commercial terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) widely used in international commercial transactions. A series of three-letter trade terms related to common sales practices, the Incoterms rules are intended primarily to clearly communicate the tasks, costs and risks associated with the transportation and delivery of goods. The Incoterms rules are accepted by governments, legal authorities and practitioners worldwide for the interpretation of most commonly used terms in international trade. They are intended to reduce or remove altogether uncertainties arising from different interpretation of the rules in different countries. First published in 1936, the Incoterms rules have been periodically updated, with the eighth version— Incoterms 2010—having been published on January 1, 2011. "Incoterms" is a registered trademark of the ICC

Incoterm Definitions/Changes

During the process of revision, which has taken about two years, ICC has done its best to invite views and responses to successive drafts from a wide ranging spectrum of world traders, represented as these various sectors are on the national committees through which ICC operates. Indeed, it has been gratifying to see that this revision process has attracted far more reaction from users around the world than any of the previous revisions of Incoterms. The result of this dialogue is Incoterms 2000, a version which when compared with Incoterms 1990 may appear to have effected few changes. It is clear, however, that Incoterms now enjoy world wide recognition and ICC has therefore decided to consolidate upon that recognition and avoid change for its own sake. On the other hand, serious efforts have been made to ensure that the wording used in Incoterms 2000 clearly and accurately reflects trade practice. Moreover, substantive changes have been made in two areas:

The 11 Incoterms consist of two groups and are listed below in order of increasing risk/liability to the exporter. Under the revised terms, buyers and sellers are being urged to contract precisely where delivery is made and what charges are covered. This should avoid double-billing of terminal handling charges at the port of discharge. References to "ship's rail" were taken out to clarify that delivery means "on-board" the vessel. Insurance, electronic documentation, and supply chain security are addressed in more detail, and gender-neutral language is now used.

Any mode of Transport

The 7 rules defined by Incoterms 2010 for any mode(s) of transportation are:

  • EXW -Ex Works (named place of delivery)

    The seller makes the goods available at its premises. The buyer is responsible for unloading. This term places the maximum obligation on the buyer and minimum obligations on the seller. The Ex Works term is often used when making an initial quotation for the sale of goods without any costs included. EXW means that a seller has the goods ready for collection at his premises (works, factory, warehouse, plant) on the date agreed upon. The buyer pays all transportation costs and also bears the risks for bringing the goods to their final destination. The seller doesn't load the goods on collecting vehicles and doesn't clear them for export. If the seller does load the good, he does so at buyer's risk and cost. If parties wish seller to be responsible for the loading of the goods on departure and to bear the risk and all costs of such loading, this must be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale.

  • FCA -Free Carrier (named place of delivery)

    The seller hands over the goods, cleared for export, into the disposal of the first carrier (named by the buyer) at the named place. The seller pays for carriage to the named point of delivery, and risk passes when the goods are handed over to the first carrier.

  • CPT -Carriage Paid To (named place of destination)

    The seller pays for carriage. Risk transfers to buyer upon handing goods over to the first carrier.

  • CIP -Carriage and Insurance Paid to (named place of destination)

    The containerized transport/multimodal equivalent of CIF. Seller pays for carriage and insurance to the named destination point, but risk passes when the goods are handed over to the first carrier.

  • DAT -Delivered at Terminal (named terminal at port or place of destination)

    Seller pays for carriage to the terminal, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks up to the point that the goods are unloaded at the terminal.

  • DAP -Delivered at Place (named place of destination)

    Seller pays for carriage to the named place, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks prior to the point that the goods are ready for unloading by the buyer.

  • DPP -Delivered Duty Paid (named place of destination)

    Seller is responsible for delivering the goods to the named place in the country of the buyer, and pays all costs in bringing the goods to the destination including import duties and taxes. The buyer is responsible for unloading. This term is often used in place of the non-Incoterm "Free In Store (FIS)". This term places the maximum obligations on the seller and minimum obligations on the buyer.

Sea and inland waterway transport

The four rules defined by Incoterms 2010 for international trade where transportation is entirely conducted by water are:

  • FAS -Free alongside Ship (named port of shipment)

    The seller must place the goods alongside the ship at the named port. The seller must clear the goods for export. Suitable only for maritime transport but NOT for multimodal sea transport incontainers (see Incoterms 2010, ICC publication 715). This term is typically used for heavy-lift or bulk cargo.

  • FOB -Free on Board (named port of shipment)

    The seller must load the goods on board the vessel nominated by the buyer. Cost and risk are divided when the goods are actually on board of the vessel (this rule is new!). The seller must clear the goods for export. The term is applicable for maritime and inland waterway transport only butNOT for multimodal sea transport in containers (see Incoterms 2010, ICC publication 715). The buyer must instruct the seller the details of the vessel and the port where the goods are to be loaded, and there is no reference to, or provision for, the use of a carrier or forwarder. This term has been greatly misused over the last three decades ever since Incoterms 1980 explained that FCA should be used for container shipments.

  • CFR -Cost and Freight (named port of destination)

    Seller must pay the costs and freight to bring the goods to the port of destination. However, risk is transferred to the buyer once the goods are loaded on the vessel. Insurance for the goods is NOT included. This term is formerly known as CNF (C&F). Maritime transport only.

Incoterm 2010Export Customs declarat ionCarriage to POEUnloading of truck in POELoading charg es in POECarriage (Sea Freight/ Air Freight) to POIUnloading Charges in POELoading on truck in POICarriage to place of destinationInsuranceImport Customs clearanceImport taxes
EXW Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer   Buyer Buyer
FCA Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer   Buyer Buyer
FAS Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer   Buyer Buyer
FOB Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer   Buyer Buyer
CFR Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer   Buyer Buyer
CIF Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Seller Buyer Seller
CPT Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller   Buyer Buyer
CIP Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer
DAT Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer
DAP Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller     Seller Buyer
DDP Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller   Seller Seller
CFR — Cost and Freight | CIF — Cost, Insurance and Freight | CIP — Carriage and Insurance Paid CPT — Carriage Paid To 
DAP — Delivered at Place DDP — Delivered Duty Paid DAT — Delivered at Terminal EXW — EX Works 
FAS — Free Alongside Ship FCA — Free Carrier | FOB — Free On Board

Incoterm Do Not...

  • Neither determines ownership or transfer title to the goods, nor evoke payment terms.
  • Apply to service contracts, nor define contractual rights or obligations (except fordelivery) or breach of contract remedies.
  • Protect parties from their own risk or loss, nor cover the goods before or after delivery.
  • Specify details of the transfer, transport, and delivery of the goods. Container loading is NOT considered packaging, and must be addressed in the sales contract.
  • Remember, Incoterms are not law and there is NO default Incoterm!

*POE- Port of Export | *POI- Port of Import

Agent (Agt.) - A person authorized to transact business for and in the name of another person or company. Types of agent are:

  • Brokers (Custom House or Freight Forwarders),
  • Commission merchants,
  • Resident buyers,
  • Sales agents,
  • Manufacturer's representatives, - Destination agents,
  • Steamship line agents

AES

All cargo with a value over $2500 that leaves the country must be filed with the U.S. Government through a form called a Shippers Export Declaration (SED). This is the responsibility of the shipper. Many times, the shipper does not know how, or may not want to do this work. They must then sign a limited power of attorney form, that authorizes the carrier to file on their behalf. New regulations state filing must now be submitted electronically through Automated Electronic Shipper export declaration (AES). Also, this must be filed 24 hours before time of sailing. Because of this rule, some of the ship lines are making documentation cuts very early, to make sure they are in compliance.

All In

All cargo with a value over $2500 that leaves the country must be filed with the U.S. Government through a form called a Shippers Export Declaration (SED). This is the responsibility of the shipper. Many times, the shipper does not know how, or may not want to do this work. They must then sign a limited power of attorney form, that authorizes the carrier to file on their behalf. New regulations state filing must now be submitted electronically through Automated Electronic Shipper export declaration (AES). Also, this must be filed 24 hours before time of sailing. Because of this rule, some of the ship lines are making documentation cuts very early, to make sure they are in compliance.

B/L

Bill of Landing

BAF

Abbreviation for "Bunker Adjustment Factor." Used to compensate steamship lines for fluctuating fuel costs. Sometimes called "Fuel Adjustment Factor" or FAF.

Base Rate

A tariff term referring to the ocean rate less accessorial charges, or simply the base tariff rate.

Bill of Lading

  • B/L Terms & Conditions: the fine print on B/L; defines what the carrier can and cannot do, including the carrier's liabilities and contractual agreements.
  • Express B/L: Non-negotiable B/L where there are no hard copies of originals printed.
  • Negotiable B/L: The B/L is a title document to the goods, issued "to the order of" a party, usually the shipper, whose endorsement is required to effect its negotiation. Thus, a shipper's order (negotiable) B/L can be bought, sold, or traded while goods are in transit and is commonly used for letter-of-credit transactions. The buyer must submit the original B/L to the carrier in order to take possession of the goods.
  • Non-Negotiable B/L: Sometimes means a file copy of a B/L. See Straight B/L.
  • Original B/L: The part of the B/L set that has value, especially when negotiable; rest of set are only informational file copies. Originals must be presented for the consignee to receive cargo. Abbreviated as OBL.
  • Straight B/L - A non-negotiable bill of lading which states a specific identity to whom the goods should be delivered.

Blocking or Bracing

Wood or metal supports (Dunnage) to keep shipments in place to prevent cargo from shifting.

Booking

Arrangements with a carrier for the acceptance and carriage of freight; i.e., a space reservation.

Booking Number

Reservation number used to secure equipment and act as a control number prior to completion of a B/L. Confirmation of a booking.

Break Bulk

  • To unload and distribute a portion or all of the contents of a rail car, container, or trailer.
  • Loose, non-containerized cargo.

Broker

A person who arranges for transportation of loads for a percentage of the revenue from the load. See Customhouse broker

Brokerage

Freight forwarder/broker compensation as specified by ocean tariff or contract.

Bulk Cargo

Not in packages or containers; shipped loose in the hold of a ship without mark and count. Grain, coal and sulfur are usually bulk freight.

Bunker Charge

An accessory charge sometimes added to freight rates to account for fuel costs.

Cargo N.O.S

Cargo Not Otherwise Specified. Usually the rate entry in a tariff that can apply to commodities not covered under a specific item or sub item in the applicable tariff. Also used in hazardous material descriptions.

Carrier

Any person or entity who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of carriage by rail, road, sea, air, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes.

Cartage

See Drayage

CBM (CM)

Abbreviation for "Cubic Meter."

Certificate of Origin

A certified document showing the origin of goods; used in international commerce.

CF

Abbreviation "Cubic Feet".

CFS

Abbreviation for "Container Freight Station."

Chassis

A frame with wheels and container locking devices in order to secure the container for movement.

COGSA

Carriage of Goods by Sea Act. U.S. federal codification passed in 1936 which standardizes carrier's liability under carrier's bill of lading. U.S. enactment of The Hague Rules.

Collect

Freight charges paid by the consignee prior to the release of the bills of lading by the carrier.

Commercial Invoice

Represents a complete record of the transaction between exporter and importer with regard to the goods sold. Also reports the content of the shipment and serves as the basis for all other documents about the shipment. Some countries require original commercial invoices in order to clear customs at destination.

Commodity

Article shipped, description. Different commodities can sometimes have different rates. For dangerous and hazardous cargo, the correct commodity identification is critical.

Consignee

A person or company to whom commodities are shipped to.

Consolidation

Containers with multiple shippers and/or consignees. Multiple LCL shipments loaded on a single container.

Consolidator

A person or firm performing a consolidation service for others. The consolidator is able to receive shipments destined for one consignee from multiple suppliers, consolidating them to ship together.

Container

A truck trailer body that can be detached from the chassis for loading into a vessel, a rail car or stacked in a container depot. Containers may be ventilated, insulated, refrigerated, flat rack, vehicle rack, open top, bulk liquid or equipped with interior devices. A container may be 20 feet, 40 feet, 45 feet, 48 feet or 53 feet in length, 7'8" in width, and 8'6" or 9'6" in height. SeeContainer Specifications.

Container Freight Station

A shipping dock where cargo is loaded ("stuffed" (cont stuffing)) into or unloaded ("stripped") from containers. Generally, this involves less than container load shipments (LCL), although small shipments destined to same consignee are often consolidated. Container reloading from/to rail or motor carrier equipment is a typical activity.

Container Terminal

An area designated for the stowage of containers; usually accessible by truck, railroad and marine transportation. Here containers are picked up, dropped off, maintained and housed. Container Terminals located on an "off pier" premise can be referred to as container yards.

Contraband

Cargo that is prohibited.

Cubic Foot

1,728 cubic inches. A volume contained in a space measuring one foot high, one foot wide and one foot long.

Custom House Broker

A person or firm, licensed by the treasury department of their country when required, engaged in entering and clearing goods through Customs for a client (importer).

Customs Bonded Warehouse

A warehouse authorized by Customs to receive duty-free merchandise.

Cut-Off Time

The latest time cargo may be delivered to a terminal for loading to a scheduled train or ship.

CWT

Hundred weight (United States, 100 pounds: U.K.,112)

CY

Abbreviation for Container Yard.

DBA

Abbreviation for "Doing Business As." A legal term for conducting business under a registered name.

Deconsolidation Point

Place where loose (LCL) or other non-containerized cargo is ungrouped for delivery.

Delivery Instructions

Order to pick up or deliver goods at a named place and deliver the cargo or empty container to a pier. Also known as shipping delivery order.

Demurrage

A penalty charge against shippers or consignees for delaying the carrier's equipment beyond the allowed free time. The free time and demurrage charges are set forth in the charter party or freight tariff. - See alsoDetention and Per Diem.

Detention

A penalty charge against shippers or consignees for delaying carrier's equipment beyond allowed time. Demurrage applies to cargo; detention applies to equipment. See Per Diem.

Direct Service

Denotes that the container stays on the same vessel from port of loading to port of discharge. In contrast to Relay Service.

Dock

  • For ships, a cargo handling area parallel to the shoreline where a vessel normally ties up.
  • For trucks, a loading or unloading platform at an industrial location or carrier terminal.

Dock Receipt (D/R)

  • A form used to acknowledge receipt of cargo and
  • For ocean shipments, D/R are used for port/ pier delivery, and often serves as basis for preparation of the ocean bill of lading.
  • For domestic shipments, truckers D/R or B/L serves as proof of delivery (POD)

Door-to-Door

Rate basis where transportation of a container and its contents from consignor (shipper/supplier) door to consignee door. Not necessarily a through rate.

Drayage

Charge made for local hauling by dray or truck in regards to FCL ocean shipments. Same as Cartage.

Equipment Interchange Receipt (EIR)

See as TIR.

ETA

Estimated Time of Arrival.

Ex

"From" - When used in pricing terms such as "Ex Factory", "Ex Dock", "Ex Door Atlanta", or "Ex Port NY", it signifies that the price quoted applies only at the point of origin indicated.

Export Declaration

A government document declaring designated goods to be shipped out of the country. To be completed by the shipper or exporter and filed with the U.S. Government, called Shipper Export Declaration. New government regulations require the SED be filed electronically, through Automed Export Shippers' declaration (AES).

FCL

Abbreviation for "Full Container Load."

Feeder Service

Cargo to/from regional ports are transferred to/from a central hub port for ocean voyage, called Trans-Shipping or Relay service. The vessel from the hub to final destinations is call a Feeder Vessel. Feeder Service is in contrast to Direct Service.

Flat Rack/Flat Bed Container

A container with no sides and frame members at the front and rear. Container can be loaded from the sides and top. See Container Specifications.

FMC (F.M.C.)

Federal Maritime Commission. The U.S. Governmental regulatory body responsible for administering maritime affairs including the tariff system, Freight Forwarder Licensing, enforcing the conditions of the Shipping Act and approving conference or other carrier agreements.

Force Majeure

The title of a common clause in contracts, exempting the parties for non- fulfillment of their obligations as a result of conditions beyond their control, such as earthquakes, floods or war.

Free Time

That amount of time that a carrier's equipment may be used without incurring additional charges. (See Demurrage or Per Diem)

Freight Bill

A document issued by the carrier based on the bill of lading and other information; used to account for a shipment operationally, statistically, and financially. An Invoice.

Freight Forwarder

A person whose business is to act as an agent on behalf of the shipper. A freight forwarder frequently makes the booking reservation.

Gauge, Out of

In reference to non- containerized, over sized cargo. Cargo that exceeds the permissible height, width, and/ or length limits allowed for road transportation. Out of gauge cargo requires special permits, and special chassis equipment. "In gauge" is commonly used when describing the nature of cargo that is non- containerized, not over sized, denoting that no special provisions are needed for over the road transportation.

GDSM

Abbreviation for "General Department Store Merchandise." A classification of commodities that includes goods generally shipped by mass-merchandise companies. This commodity structure occurs only in service contracts, and is often no longer accepted as a valid description of cargo.

GRI

Abbreviation for "General Rate Increase." Used to describe an across-the-board tariff rate increase and is applied to base rates.

Hague Rules, The

A multilateral maritime treaty adopted in 1921 (at The Hague, Netherlands). Standardizes liability of an international carrier under the Ocean B/L. Establishes a legal "floor" for B/L.

Harbor Master

An officer who attends to the berthing, etc., of ships in a harbor.

Harmonized System of Codes (HS)

An international goods classification system for describing cargo in international trade under a single commodity-coding scheme. Developed under the auspices of the Customs Cooperations Council (CCC), an international Customs organization in Brussels, this code is a hierarchically structured product nomenclature containing approximately 5,000 headings and subheadings. It is organized into 99 chapters arranged in 22 sections. Sections encompass an industry (e.g., Section XI, Textiles and Textile Articles); chapters encompass the various materials and products of the industry (e.g., Chapter 50, Silk; Chapter 55, Manmade Staple Fibers; Chapter 57, Carpets). The basic code contains four-digit headings and six-digit subheadings. Many countries add digits for Customs tariff and statistical purposes. In the United States, duty rates will be the eight-digit level; statistical suffixes will be at the ten-digit level. The Harmonized System (HS) is the current U.S. tariff schedule (TSUSA) for imports and is the basis for the ten-digit Schedule B export code. Schedule B codes are needed to complete AES

HAZ MAT

An industry abbreviation for "Hazardous Material."

I.M.D.G. Code

International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code. The regulations published by the IMO for transporting hazardous materials internationally.

ICC

  • "Interstate Commerce Commission,"
  • "International Chamber of Commerce."

In Bond

Cargo moving under Customs control where duty has not yet been paid.

In Gate

The transaction or interchange that occurs at the time a container is received by a rail terminal or water port from another carrier. A TIR is issued as a receipt.

Inland Carrier

A transportation line that hauls export or import traffic between ports and inland points.

Insurance, All-risk

This type of insurance offers the shipper the broadest coverage available, covering against all losses that may occur in transit.

Interline Freight

Freight moving from origin to destination over the Freight lines of two or more transportation carriers.

Intermodal

Used to denote movements of cargo containers interchangeably between transport modes, i.e., motor, water, and air carriers, and where the equipment is compatible within the multiple systems.

Invoice

An itemized list of goods shipped to a buyer, stating quantities, prices, shipping charges, etc.

Kilogram

1,000 grams or 2.2046 pounds.

Knocked Down (KD)

Articles which are taken apart to reduce the cubic footage displaced or to make a better shipping unit and are to be re-assembled.

Lading

Refers to the freight shipped; the contents of a shipment.

LCL

Abbreviation for "Less than Container Load." The quantity of freight which is less than that required for the application of a container load rate. Loose Freight. Applies to ocean cargo.

Kilogram

1,000 grams or 2.2046 pounds.

Lloyds' Registry

An organization maintained for the surveying and classing of ships so that insurance underwriters and others may know the quality and condition of the vessels offered for insurance or employment.

Longshoreman

Individual employed in a port to load and unload ships.

Low-Boy

A chassis with no sides and with the floor of the unit close to the ground. Used to transport out of gauge, height wise, cargo.

LTL

Less Than Truckload. Mostly applies to domestic cargo

Manifest

Document that lists in detail all the bills of lading issued by a carrier or its agent or master for a specific voyage. A detailed summary of the total cargo of a vessel. Used principally for Customs purposes. Also, a detailed list of all cargo in a specific container.

Metric Ton

2,204.6 pounds or 1,000 kilograms.

Minimum Bill of Lading

A clause in a Bill of lading which specifies the least charge that the carrier will make for issuing a lading. The charge may be a definite sum or the current charge per ton for any specified quantity.

Minimum Charge

The lowest charge that can be assessed to transport a shipment.

Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC)

A cargo consolidator in ocean trades who will buy large space from a carrier and sell it to smaller shippers. The NVOCC issues bills of lading, publishes tariffs and otherwise conducts itself as an ocean common carrier, except that it will not provide the actual ocean or intermodal service.

NOS

Not Otherwise Specified.

NPPEE

Not Properly Packaged For Export.

Ocean Bill of Lading (Ocean B/L)

A contract for transportation between a shipper and a carrier. It also evidences receipt of the cargo by the carrier. A bill of lading shows ownership of the cargo and, if made negotiable, can be bought, sold or traded while the goods are in-transit.

Per Diem

A charge, based on a fixed daily rate.

Ocean Bill of Lading (Ocean B/L)

A contract for transportation between a shipper and a carrier. It also evidences receipt of the cargo by the carrier. A bill of lading shows ownership of the cargo and, if made negotiable, can be bought, sold or traded while the goods are in-transit.

POD

Abbreviation for:
  • Port of Discharge/ Destination.
  • Proof of Delivery.

Point of Origin

The place at which a shipment is received by a carrier from the shipper.

POL

Abbreviation for Port of Loading. Origin Port.

Pomerene Act, Also known as (U.S.) Federal Bill of Lading Act of 1916

U.S. federal law enacting conditions by which a B/L may be issued. Penalties for issuing B/L's containing false data include monetary fines and/or imprisonment.

Port of Discharge

Port where cargo is discharged from means of transport.

Prepaid (PPD.)

Freight charges paid by the consignor (shipper) prior to the release of the bills of lading by the carrier.

Quotation

An offer to sell goods at a stated price and under stated terms.

Rag Top

A slang term for an open-top trailer or container with a tarpaulin cover.

Ramp

Railroad terminal where containers are received or delivered and trains loaded or discharged. Originally, trailers moved onto the rearmost flatcar via a ramp and driven into position in a technique known as "circus loading." Most modern rail facilities use lifting equipment to position containers onto the flatcars.

Ramp-to-Door

A movement where the load initiates at an origin rail ramp and terminates at a consignee's door.

Rate Basis

A formula of the specific factors or elements that control the making of a rate. A rate can be based on any number of factors (i.e., weight, measure, equipment type, package, box, etc.).

Reconsignment

Changing the consignee or destination on a bill of lading while shipment is still in transit. Diversion has substantially the same meaning.

Reefer

Refrigerated container

Relay

To transfer containers from one ship to another (Feeder Vessel) when both vessels are controlled by the same network (carrier) manager. Also known as Trans-shipping.

Ro/Ro

A shortening of the term, "Roll On/Roll Off." A method of ocean cargo service using a vessel with ramps which allows wheeled vehicles to be loaded and discharged without cranes.

 

Roll

To re-book cargo to a later vessel.

Schedule B

The Statistical Classification of Domestic and Foreign Commodities Exported from the United States

SED

U.S. Commerce Department document, "Shipper's Export Declaration

Shipper

The person or company who is usually the supplier or owner of commodities shipped. Also know as the consignor.

Shipper's Export Declaration (SED,"Ex Dec")

A joint Bureau of the Census' International Trade Administration form used for compiling U.S. exports. It is completed by a shipper and shows the value, weight, destination, etc., of export shipments as well as Schedule B commodity code

Shipper's Instructions

Shipper's communication(s) to its agent and/or directly to the international water-carrier. Instructions may be varied, e.g., specific details/clauses to be printed on the B/L, directions for cargo pickup and delivery.

Shipper's Load & Count (SLAC/ SL&C)

Shipments loaded and sealed by shippers and not checked or verified by the carriers.

Shrink Wrap

Polyethylene or similar substance, can be heat-treated, and shrunk to an envelope several units, thereby securing them as a single pack for presentation or to secure units on a pallet.

Spotting

Placing a container where required to be loaded or unloaded.

STC

Said to Contain. Used to describe quantity of cargo that is not verified by using the intact nature of larger packaging. Ie: 1 skid STC 50 ctns. Documents states there are 50 ctns, but the count can not verified, and the shrink wrapped skid is in good order. May also be used to describe the number of pieces in an ocean container.

STI

Subject to Inspection. Used to describe cargo that may have some damage to packaging, or look possibly damaged, but can not be verified.

Stripping

Removing cargo from a container (Unloading or Devanning).

Stuffing

Putting cargo into a container (Loading).

Terminal

An assigned area in which containers are prepared for loading into a vessel, train, truck, or airplane or are stacked immediately after discharge from the vessel, train, truck, or airplane.

Terminal Charge

A charge made for a service performed in a carrier's terminal area.

TEU

Abbreviation for "Twenty foot Equivalent Unit." Used to convey quantity for large amounts of cargo.

TIR

A document transferring a container from one carrier to another, or to/from a terminal. Same as EIR.

Trailer

he truck unit into which freight is loaded as in tractor trailer combination. Usually used regarding domestic cargo.

Validation

Authentication of B/L and when B/L becomes effective.

Water

Term used in referencing the amount of volume an ocean container can hold. The given volume is if the container was filled with water, using all available space. A distinction is made since this type of measurement is not practical.

W.M. (W/M)

Insurance coverage for loss of goods resulting from any act of war.